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involvement ending in 1973, and included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, resulting in all three countries becoming communist in 1975.The Việt Cộng, also known as Front national de libération du Sud-Viêt Nam or NLF (the National Liberation Front), a South Vietnamese common front under the direction of North Vietnam, initiated a guerrilla war in the south.Diệm staffed his government's key posts mostly with northern and central Catholics.In addition to the Catholics flowing south, up to 130,000 "Revolutionary Regroupees" went to the north for "regroupment", expecting to return to the south within two years.Hostilities escalated into the First Indochina War (beginning in December 1946). On , the French garrison at Dien Bien Phu surrendered.By the 1950s, the conflict had become entwined with the Cold War. The defeat marked the end of French military involvement in Indochina.Ho Chi Minh had wished to continue the war in the south, but was restrained by his Chinese allies who convinced him that he could win control by electoral means.Under the terms of the Geneva Accords, civilians were to be given the opportunity to move freely between the two provisional states for a 300-day period.
From April to June 1955, Diệm eliminated any political opposition in the south by launching military operations against two religious groups: the Cao Đài and Hòa Hảo of Ba Cụt.In January 1950, China and the Soviet Union recognized the Viet Minh's Democratic Republic of Vietnam, based in Hanoi, as the legitimate government of Vietnam. At the Geneva Conference, the French negotiated a ceasefire agreement with the Viet Minh, and independence was granted to Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam.The following month the United States and Great Britain recognized the French-backed State of Vietnam in Saigon, led by former Emperor Bảo Đại, as the legitimate Vietnamese government. At the 1954 Geneva peace conference, Vietnam was temporarily partitioned at the 17th parallel.Within the US the war gave rise to what was referred to as Vietnam Syndrome, a public aversion to American overseas military involvements, and the Vietnam Conflict.Given that there have been several conflicts in Indochina, this particular conflict is known by the names of its primary protagonists, in order to distinguish it from others. participation in Vietnam had begun in 1945 when it gave support to a French effort to reconquer its colony in Vietnam, a nation which had just declared independence in August 1945.